Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Basis of Presentation Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Nature of Operations (Policies)

Basis of Presentation Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Nature of Operations (Policies)
6 Months Ended
Jun. 30, 2021
Basis of Presentation, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, and Nature of Operations  
Basis of presentation

The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements of Lightbridge Corporation and its subsidiaries have been prepared in accordance with the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, including the instructions to Form 10-Q and Regulation S-X. Certain information and note disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America, including a summary of the Company's significant accounting policies, have been condensed or omitted from these statements pursuant to such rules and regulations and, accordingly, they do not include all the information and notes necessary for comprehensive consolidated financial statements and should be read in conjunction with our audited consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2020, included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020.


In the opinion of the management of the Company, all adjustments, which are of a normal recurring nature, necessary for a fair statement of the results for the three and six-month period have been made. Results for the interim period presented are not necessarily indicative of the results that might be expected for the entire fiscal year. When used in these notes, the terms "Lightbridge", "Company," "we," "us" or "our" mean Lightbridge Corporation and all entities included in our condensed consolidated financial statements.


The Company was formed on October 6, 2006, when Thorium Power, Ltd., which was incorporated in the state of Nevada on February 2, 1999, merged with Thorium Power, Inc. ("TPI"), which was incorporated in the state of Delaware on January 8, 1992 (subsequently and collectively referred to as "we" or the "Company"). On September 29, 2009, the Company changed its name from Thorium Power, Ltd. to Lightbridge Corporation and began its focus on developing and commercializing metallic nuclear fuels. The Company is a nuclear fuel technology company developing and working to commercialize it next generation nuclear fuel technology.

Going Concern, Liquidity and Management's Plan

The Company's available working capital at June 30, 2021 does not exceed its currently anticipated expenditures through the second quarter of 2022. There are inherent uncertainties in forecasting future expenditures, especially forecasting for uncertainties such as future research and development (R&D) costs and how the COVID-19 outbreak, including the emergence and spread of variant strains of the virus, may affect future costs and operations. Also, the cash requirements of the Company's future planned operations to commercialize its nuclear fuel, including any additional expenditures that may result from unexpected developments, requires it to raise significant additional capital, including receiving government support. Taking into account these uncertainties as well as the updated projected fuel development timeline of 15-20 years to commercialization, projected operational costs to keep the fuel development project on schedule and the various risks of developing and commercializing its nuclear fuel, these factors raise substantial doubt about the Company's ability to continue as a going concern for the 12 months following the date of this filing. To the extent any uncertainties reduce the Company's liquidity for the next 12 months, the Company will consider, if available, additional debt or equity raises and delaying certain expenditures, including delaying R&D expenses, until sufficient capital becomes available.


At June 30, 2021, the Company had approximately $13.8 million in cash and had a working capital surplus of approximately $13.8 million. The Company's net cash used in operating activities for the six months ended June 30, 2021 was approximately $7.7 million, and current projections indicate that the Company will have continued negative cash flows for the foreseeable future. Net losses incurred for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020 amounted to approximately $(3.6) million and $(4.4) million, respectively. As of June 30, 2021, the Company had an accumulated deficit of approximately $132.8 million, representative of recurring losses since inception. The Company will continue to incur losses because it is in the early development stage of commercializing its nuclear fuel.


The Company's plans to fund future operations include: (1) raising additional capital through future equity issuances or convertible debt financings; (2) additional funding through new relationships to help fund future R&D costs; and (3) seeking other sources of capital. The Company may issue securities, including common stock, preferred stock, and stock purchase contracts through private placement transactions or registered public offerings, pursuant to current and future registration statements. The current Form S-3 was filed with the SEC on March 25, 2021 registering the sale of up to $75 million of the Company's securities and declared effective on April 5, 2021. There can be no assurance as to the future availability of equity capital or the acceptability of the terms upon which financing and capital might become available. The Company's future liquidity needs to develop its nuclear fuel are long-term, and the ability to address those needs and to raise capital will largely be determined by the success of the development of its nuclear fuel, key nuclear development and government regulatory events, and its business decisions in the future.

Basis of Consolidation

These condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Lightbridge, a Nevada corporation, and the Company's wholly-owned subsidiaries, TPI, a Delaware corporation, and Lightbridge International Holding LLC, a Delaware limited liability company. These wholly-owned subsidiaries are inactive. All significant intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.

Certain Risks, Uncertainties and Concentrations

The Company will need additional funding by way of a combination of strategic alliances, government grants, further offerings of equity securities, or an offering of debt securities in order to support its future R&D activities required to further enhance and complete the development of its fuel products to a proof of concept stage and a commercial stage thereafter.


There can be no assurance that the Company will be able to successfully continue to conduct its operations if there is a lack of financial resources available in the future to continue its fuel development, and a failure to do so would have a material adverse effect on the Company's future R&D activities, financial position, results of operations, and cash flows. Also, the success of the Company's operations will be subject to other numerous contingencies, some of which are beyond management's control. These contingencies include general and regional economic conditions, contingent liabilities, potential competition with other nuclear fuel developers, including those entities developing accident tolerant fuels, changes in government regulations, support for nuclear power, changes in accounting and taxation standards, inability to achieve overall long-term goals, future impairment charges to its assets, and global or regional catastrophic events. The Company may also be subject to various additional political, economic, and other uncertainties.


On January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization ("WHO") announced a global health emergency because of a new strain of coronavirus originating in Wuhan, China (the "COVID-19 outbreak") and the risk to the international community as the virus spreads globally beyond its point of origin. In March 2020, the WHO classified the COVID-19 outbreak a pandemic, based on increased exposure globally. The current spread of COVID-19, including the emergence and spread of variant strains of the virus, that is impacting global economic activity and market conditions could lead to adverse changes in the Company's ability to conduct R&D activities with the United States national labs and others. The COVID-19 outbreak has impacted our business operations and results of operations for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and year ended December 31, 2020, resulting in the reduction of R&D expenses and an increase in general and administrative expenses due to severance payments to former employees. However, the effects of the pandemic are fluid and changing rapidly, including with respect to vaccine and treatment developments and deployment and potential mutations of COVID-19. While the Company continues to monitor the impact of COVID-19 on its business, the Company is unable to accurately predict the ultimate impact on future results of operations, financial condition and liquidity that COVID-19 will have due to various uncertainties, including the geographic spread of the virus, the severity of the disease, the duration of the outbreak, and actions that may be taken by governmental authorities and other third-parties.


On March 27, 2020, President Trump signed into law the “Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act.” The CARES Act, among other things, includes provisions relating to refundable payroll tax credits, deferment of employer social security payment, net operating loss carryback period, alternative minimum tax credit refund, modification to the net interest deduction limitation, increased limitations on qualified charitable contributions, and technical corrections to tax depreciation method for qualified improvement property. It also appropriated funds for the SBA Paycheck Protection Program loans that are forgivable in certain situations to promote continued employment, as well as Economic Injury Disaster Loans to provide liquidity to small businesses harmed by COVID-19. Management decided not to apply for these funds. The CARES Act did not have an impact on our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity. 

Grant Income

The Company concluded that its government grant was not within the scope of ASC Topic 606 as it did not meet the definition of a contract with a customer. Additionally, the Company concluded that the grant met the definition of a contribution and the grant is a non-reciprocal transaction. The Company determined that Subtopic 958-605, Not-for-Profit-Entities-Revenue Recognition did not apply, as the Company is a business entity and the grant is received from governmental agencies.


In the absence of applicable guidance under U.S. generally accepted accounting principles ("U.S. GAAP"), the Company's management developed a policy to recognize grant income at the time the related costs are incurred and the right to payment is realized.


The Company believes this policy is consistent with the overarching premise in ASC Topic 606, to ensure that revenue recognition reflects the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration that we expect to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services, even though there is no exchange as defined in ASC Topic 606. Additionally, the Company determined that the recognition of grant income as costs are incurred and amounts become realizable is analogous to the concept of transfer of control of a service over time under ASC Topic 606.

Further, the Company believes that showing grant income on a gross method, with the grant income shown as other operating income and the related costs as a charge to R&D expense, rather than depicting the grant income as a reduction of R&D expense, is a more meaningful presentation.


The Company recognized grant income of approximately $0.1 million and $0.2 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, respectively. There was no grant income for the three and six months ended June 30, 2020.

Patents and Trademarks

Through September 30, 2020, patents were stated on the consolidated balance sheets at cost. Costs, such as filing fees with patent granting agencies and legal fees directly relating to those filings, incurred to file patent applications were capitalized when the Company believed that there was a high likelihood that the patent would be issued and there would be future economic benefit associated with the patent. These costs were amortized from the date of the patent application on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful life of 20 years, which is the legal life of the patent. All costs associated with abandoned patent applications were expensed. The Company expensed patent annuity fees as these fees were maintenance fees required by the patent office at certain points in time after a patent was granted in order to keep the patent legal rights in force. During the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, these patent annuity fees were insignificant. In the fourth quarter of 2020, the remaining patent costs were written-off as impaired.


Beginning January 1, 2021, patent filing fees with patent granting agencies and legal fees directly relating to those filings, incurred to file patent applications were expensed as the Company believes that there is not a high likelihood that there will be a future economic benefit associated with the patents, due to the uncertainties in the current fuel development timelines and the patents being commercialized. The Company continues to expense patent annuity fees as these fees are maintenance fees required by the patent office at certain points in time after a patent is granted, in order to keep the patent legal rights in force. As of June 30, 2021, and December 31, 2020 the carrying value of the patents on the balance sheets was $0.


Costs for filing and legal fees for trademark applications are capitalized. Trademarks are considered intangible assets with an indefinite useful life and therefore should not be amortized. The Company performed an impairment test in the fourth quarter of 2020 and no impairment of the trademarks was identified. As of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the carrying value of trademarks was approximately $0.1 million.


In accordance with ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), which requires recognition of most lease arrangements on the balance sheet, the Company recognizes operating lease right of use assets and liabilities at commencement date based on the present value of the future minimum lease payments over the lease term. Leases with an initial term of 12 months or less are not recorded on the consolidated balance sheet in accordance with the short-term lease recognition exemption. The Company applies the practical expedient to non-separate and non-lease components for all leases that qualify. Lease expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. The Company has only one lease for office rent and the lease is for a term of 12 months without renewal options. See Note 4 for additional information.

Stock-Based Compensation

The stock-based compensation expense incurred by Lightbridge for employees and directors in connection with its equity incentive plan is based on the employee model of ASC 718, and the fair value of the options is measured at the grant date. In accordance with ASU 2018-07, Compensation – Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting, options granted to our consultants are accounted for in the same manner as options issued to employees.


Awards with service-based vesting conditions only – Expense recognized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period of the award.


Awards with performance-based vesting conditions – Expense is not recognized until it is determined that it is probable the performance-based conditions will be met. When achievement of a performance-based condition is probable, a catch-up of expense is recorded as if the award had been vesting on a straight-line basis from the award date. The award will continue to be expensed on a straight-line over the requisite service period basis until a higher performance-based condition is met, if applicable.

Awards with market-based vesting conditions – Expense recognized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period, which is the lesser of the derived service period or the explicit service period if one is present. However, if the market condition is satisfied prior to the end of the requisite service period, the Company accelerates all remaining expense to be recognized.


Awards with both performance-based and market-based vesting conditions – If an award vesting or exercisability is conditional upon the achievement of either a market condition or performance or service conditions, the requisite service period is generally the shortest of the explicit, implicit, and derived service period.


The Company elected to use the Black-Scholes pricing model to determine the fair value of stock options on the measurement date of the grant for service-based vesting conditions and the Monte-Carlo valuation method for performance-based or market-based vesting conditions. Shares that are issued to officers on the exercise dates of the stock options may be issued net of the minimum statutory withholding requirements to be paid by the Company on behalf of the employees. As a result, the actual number of shares issued are fewer than the actual number of shares exercised under the stock option.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements - To Be Adopted

In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-06, Debt-Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging-Contracts in Entity's Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity's Own Equity. ASU 2020-06 will simplify the accounting for convertible instruments by reducing the number of accounting models for convertible debt instruments and convertible preferred stock. Limiting the accounting models will result in fewer embedded conversion features being separately recognized from the host contract as compared with current U.S. GAAP. Convertible instruments that continue to be subject to separation models are (1) those with embedded conversion features that are not clearly and closely related to the host contract, that meet the definition of a derivative, and that do not qualify for a scope exception from derivative accounting and (2) convertible debt instruments issued with substantial premiums for which the premiums are recorded as paid-in capital. ASU 2020-06 also amends the guidance for the derivatives scope exception for contracts in an entity's own equity to reduce form-over-substance-based accounting conclusions. ASU 2020-06 will be effective July 1, 2024, for the Company. Early adoption is permitted, but no earlier than January 1, 2021, including interim periods within that year. Management is currently evaluating the effect of the adoption of ASU 2020-06 on the consolidated financial statements and related footnote disclosures.