Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Basis of Presentation Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Nature of Operations (Policies)

Basis of Presentation Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Nature of Operations (Policies)
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2023
Basis of Presentation Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Nature of Operations  
Basis of Consolidation

These consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Lightbridge, a Nevada corporation, and the Company’s wholly-owned subsidiaries, TPI, a Delaware corporation, and Lightbridge International Holding LLC, a Delaware limited liability company. These wholly-owned subsidiaries are inactive. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.

Segment Reporting

We report our results in a single reportable segment, which reflects how our chief operating decision maker allocates resources considering our core data, which is managed centrally on a company-wide basis and evaluates our financial results. Because we have a single reportable segment, all required financial segment information can be found directly in the Consolidated Financial Statements. We evaluate the performance of our reporting segment based on our operating expenses.

Basis of Presentation and Use of Estimates and Assumptions

The preparation of consolidated financial statements, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (GAAP), requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Estimates and assumptions are periodically reviewed and the effects of revisions are reflected in the consolidated financial statements in the period they are determined to be necessary. There were no significant estimates at December 31, 2023 and 2022.

Fair Value of Financial Instruments

The Company determines fair value as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between unaffiliated market participants at the measurement date.


ASC 820 establishes a fair value hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs used to measure fair value. Assets and liabilities measured at fair value are categorized based on whether the inputs are observable in the market and the degree that the inputs are observable. The hierarchy gives the highest priority to active markets for identical assets and liabilities (Level 1 measurement) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3 measurement). The categorization of financial instruments within the valuation hierarchy is based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. The three levels of the fair value hierarchy are as follows:


Level 1 - Observable inputs such as quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities;


Level 2 - Inputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly. These include quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active and inputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the asset or liability; and


Level 3 - Unobservable inputs that reflect management’s assumptions.


For disclosure purposes, assets and liabilities are classified in their entirety in the fair value hierarchy level based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the overall fair value measurement. The Company’s assessment of the significance of a particular input to the fair value measurement requires judgment and may affect the placement within the fair value hierarchy levels.

The Company’s financial instruments consist principally of cash and cash equivalents, accounts payable and accrued liabilities. The carrying amounts of cash and cash equivalents (which includes U.S. treasury bills at December 31, 2022), accounts payable and accrued liabilities are considered to be a Level 1 measurement, representative of their respective fair values because of the short-term nature of those instruments. U.S. treasury bills are classified as Level 1 on the fair value hierarchy as there are quoted prices in active markets for identical assets.


The following tables summarize the valuation of the Company’s cash equivalents that fall within the fair value hierarchy (in millions) at December 31, 2022. There were no cash equivalents at December 31, 2023.




Level I



Level II



Level III


Treasury Bills


$ 19.90








Certain Risks and Uncertainties

The Company will need additional funding and /or in-kind support via a combination of strategic alliances, government grants, further offerings of equity securities, or an offering of debt securities in order to support its future research and development (R&D) activities required to further enhance and complete the development and commercialization of its fuel products.


There can be no assurance that the Company will be able to successfully continue to conduct its operations if there is a lack of financial resources available in the future to continue its fuel development activities, and a failure to do so would have a material adverse effect on the Company’s future R&D activities, financial position, results of operations, and cash flows. Also, the success of the Company’s operations will be subject to other numerous contingencies, some of which are beyond management’s control. These contingencies include general and regional economic conditions, contingent liabilities, potential competition with other nuclear fuel developers, including those entities developing accident tolerant fuels, changes in government regulations, risks related to the research and development of our nuclear fuel, regulatory approval of the Company’s fuel, support for nuclear power, changes in accounting and taxation standards, inability to achieve overall short-term and long-term research and development milestones toward commercialization, future impairment charges to the Company’s assets, and global or regional catastrophic events. The Company may also be subject to various additional political, economic, and other uncertainties.

Cash and Cash Equivalents

The Company may at times invest its excess cash in interest bearing accounts and U.S. treasury bills. It classifies all highly liquid investments with original stated maturities of three months or less from date of purchase as cash equivalents and all highly liquid investments with stated maturities of greater than three months as marketable securities. The Company holds cash balances in excess of the federally insured limits of $250,000. It deems this credit risk not to be significant as cash is held by two prominent financial institutions in 2023 and 2022. The Company buys and holds short-term U.S. treasury bills to maturity. U.S. treasury bills totaled zero and $19.9 million as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. The remaining $9.0 million at December 31, 2022, were on deposit with two prominent financial institutions.

Contributed services - research and development

The Company was awarded a grant in 2021 from the United States Department of Energy (DOE), which represented contributed services to further the Company’s R&D activities. The Company concluded that its government grants were not within the scope of ASC Topic 606, Revenue Recognition, as they did not meet the definition of a contract with a customer. Additionally, the Company concluded that the grants met the definition of a contribution, as the grants were a non-reciprocal transaction. As such, the Company determined that Subtopic 958-605, Not-for-Profit-Entities-Revenue Recognition (Subtopic 958-605), applies for these contributed services, even though the Company is a business entity, as guidance in the contributions received subsections of Subtopic 958-605 applies to all entities (not-for-profits and business entities).


Subtopic 958-605 requires nonfinancial assets, which includes services, such as the R&D services provided under the Gateway for Accelerated Innovation in Nuclear (GAIN) vouchers described in Note 6. Research and Development Expenses, be shown on a gross method at the fair value of the services contributed, with contributed services - research and development shown as other operating income and the related costs as a charge to R&D expense, rather than depicting contributed services - research and development as a reduction of R&D expense. The fair value of contributed services was determined by the cost of professional time and materials, which were charged by the subcontractor who fulfilled the services contributed under the grant award. The principal market used to arrive at fair value is the market in which the Company operates.


The Company recognizes operating lease right of use assets and liabilities at commencement date based on the present value of the future minimum lease payments over the lease term. Leases with an initial term of 12 months or less are not recorded on the consolidated balance sheet in accordance with the short-term lease recognition exemption. The Company applies the practical expedient to non-separate and non-lease components for all leases that qualify. Lease expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. The Company has only one lease for office rent and the lease is for a term of 12 months without renewal options.


Costs for filing and legal fees for trademark applications are capitalized. Trademarks are considered intangible assets with an indefinite useful life and therefore are not amortized. The Company performs an impairment test in the fourth quarter or more frequently if events or circumstances indicate that an impairment loss may have been incurred. For the fourth quarter 2023 test, the Company applied the FASB's accounting guidance which allows the company to first assess qualitative factors to determine the extent of additional quantitative analysis, if any, that may be required to test trademarks for impairment. Based on the qualitative assessments performed, the company concluded that it was more likely than not that the fair value of the Trademarks substantially exceeded its carrying value and therefore, further quantitative analysis was not required. As a result, no impairment was recorded. As of December 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, the carrying value of trademarks was approximately $0.1 million.

Income Taxes

Income taxes are accounted for using the asset and liability method. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to temporary differences between the financial statements carrying amounts of assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases, operating loss carryforwards, and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. In accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) ASC 740, Accounting for Income Taxes, the Company reflects in the financial statements the benefit of positions taken in a previously filed tax return or expected to be taken in a future tax return only when it is considered ‘more-likely-than-not’ that the position taken will be sustained on its technical merits by a taxing authority upon examination. As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the Company had no unrecognized income tax benefits and correspondingly there is no impact on the Company’s effective income tax rate associated with these items. The Company’s policy for recording interest and penalties relating to uncertain income tax positions is to record them as a component of income tax expense in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations. As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the Company had no such accruals.

Stock-Based Compensation

The stock-based compensation expense incurred by the Company for employees and directors in connection with its equity incentive plan is based on the employee model of ASC 718, and the fair value of any stock options granted is measured at the grant date. Options or common stock granted to consultants for services performed are accounted for in the same manner as options and stock issued to employees for services.


Awards with service-based vesting conditions only: Expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period of the award.


The Company uses a Black-Scholes pricing model to determine the fair value of stock options on the measurement date of the grant for service-based vesting conditions. The Company estimates forfeitures at the time of grant and revises the estimate, if necessary, in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates. The forfeiture rate estimate used for all equity awards was zero, based on the experience of the Company having an insignificant historical forfeiture rate. Shares that are issued to employees upon exercise of the stock options or vesting of Restricted Stock Units (RSUs) or Restricted Stock Awards (RSAs) grants may be issued net of the number of shares with a fair value equal to the amount required to satisfy applicable tax withholding requirements. As a result, the actual number of shares issued with tax withholding obligations are fewer than the actual number of shares exercised under the stock option or on the dates of vesting of RSU or RSA grants.

The Company grants RSAs, which is an award of common shares that have full voting rights and dividend rights (with dividends paid upon vesting of the RSA) but are restricted regarding the sale or transfer before vesting. These restrictions lapse as the award vests. The shares are forfeited and returned to the Company if they do not vest. The RSAs are included in common stock issued and outstanding and are considered contingently issuable in the calculation of weighted-average shares outstanding for purposes of calculating earnings per share. The consolidated statement of changes in stockholders’ equity shows the initial grant of RSAs as a reclassification from additional paid-in capital to common stock, with any compensation expense related to the RSAs included in stock-based compensation. The number of RSAs to be granted are determined by the closing stock price on the date of the RSAs grant.

Research and Development Expenses

Research and development expenses are expensed when incurred. Research and development expenses consist primarily of wages and related payroll benefits, non-cash stock-based compensation, materials, testing, consulting, and other third-party research and development services, related to the development of the Company’s nuclear fuel. Advance payments for goods or services for future research and development activities are deferred and expensed as the goods are delivered or the related services are performed.

Comprehensive Loss

Comprehensive loss is defined as a change in equity of a business enterprise during a period resulting from transactions from nonowner sources. There have been no items qualifying as other comprehensive loss and, therefore, for all periods presented, the Company's comprehensive loss was the same as its reported net loss.

Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncement

The FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326). This standard requires a financial asset to be presented at the net amount expected to be collected. The financial assets of the Company in scope of ASU 2016-13 will primarily be accounts receivable. The Company will estimate an allowance for expected credit losses on accounts receivable that result from the inability of customers to make the required payments. In estimating the allowance for expected credit losses, consideration will be given to the current aging of receivables, historical experience, and a review for potential bad debts. The Company does not expect to have revenue or receivables for the foreseeable future. The Company adopted this guidance on January 1, 2023, and it did not have a material impact on its results of operations, financial position, and disclosures because the Company had no outstanding accounts receivable on which to apply this new standard.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted

In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-06, Debt-Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging- Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40), which simplifies the complexity associated with applying U.S. GAAP for certain financial instruments with characteristics of liabilities and equity. This ASU (1) simplifies the accounting for convertible debt instruments and convertible preferred stock by removing the existing guidance in ASC 470-20, Debt: Debt with Conversion and Other Options, that requires entities to account for beneficial conversion features and cash conversion features in equity, separately from the host convertible debt or preferred stock; (2) revises the scope exception from derivative accounting in Subtopic 815-40 for freestanding financial instruments and embedded features that are both indexed to the issuer’s own stock and classified in stockholders’ equity, by removing certain criteria required for equity classification; and (3) revises the guidance in ASC 260, Earnings Per Share, to require entities to calculate diluted earnings per share for convertible instruments by using the if-converted method. ASU 2020-06 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2023, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted, but no earlier than fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Adoption is either through a modified retrospective method or a full retrospective method of transition. The Company will adopt this guidance January 1, 2024 and does not expect the adoption to have a material impact on its results of operations, financial position, and disclosures because the Company does not have any transactions or instruments to which this standard applies. If in the future, the Company issues new convertible debt, warrants or other instruments, the standard may have a material effect, but it cannot be determined at this time.


In November 2023, the FASB issued ASU 2023-07, Segment Reporting (Topic 280): Improvements to Reportable Segment Disclosures (ASU 2023-07). The ASU expands public entities’ segment disclosures by requiring disclosure of significant segment expenses that are regularly provided to the chief operating decision maker and included within each reported measure of segment profit or loss, an amount and description of its composition for other segment items, and interim disclosures of a reportable segment’s profit or loss and assets. The ASU is effective for us January 1, 2024 and will be applied retrospectively. Early adoption is permitted. This ASU will likely result in additional required disclosure when adopted. The Company is currently evaluating the provisions of this ASU and the impact on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.