Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2015
Basis of Consolidation [Policy Text Block]

Basis of Consolidation

These consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Lightbridge, a Nevada corporation, and our wholly-owned subsidiaries, TPI, a Delaware corporation, Lightbridge International Holding LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, and our foreign branch offices. All significant intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation. We registered a branch office in the United Kingdom in 2008 called Lightbridge Advisors Limited (inactive) and we also established a branch office in Moscow, Russia, in July 2009, both of which are wholly owned by Lightbridge International Holding LLC at December 31, 2014. These branch offices will be closed in 2015. Translation gains and losses for the three months ended March 31, 2015 and 2014 were not significant.

Use of Estimates and Assumptions [Policy Text Block]

Use of Estimates and Assumptions

The preparation of financial statements, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

Significant Estimates [Policy Text Block]

Significant Estimates

These accompanying consolidated financial statements include some amounts that are based on management’s best estimates and judgments. The most significant estimates relate to valuation of stock grants and stock options, the valuation allowance on deferred tax assets and various contingent liabilities. It is reasonably possible that these above-mentioned estimates and others may be adjusted as more current information becomes available, and any adjustment could be significant in future reporting periods. It is also reasonably possible that the actual grant date value of the stock options vested might have been materially different than the estimated value.

Company Liquidity, Certain Risks, Uncertainties and Concentrations [Policy Text Block]

Certain Risks, Uncertainties and Concentrations

We are an early stage company and will likely need additional funding by way of strategic alliances, further offerings of equity securities, an offering of debt securities, or a financing through a bank in order to support the remaining research and development activities required to further enhance and complete the development of our fuel products to a commercial stage. Currently, we are working on consulting revenue opportunities with the overall goal of increasing our profitability and cash flow.

We participate in a government-regulated industry. Our operating results are affected by a wide variety of factors including decreases in the use or public favor of nuclear power, the ability of our technology to safeguard the production of nuclear power and our ability to safeguard our patents and intellectual property from competitors. Due to these factors, we may experience substantial period-to-period fluctuations in our future operating results. Potentially, a loss of a key officer, key management, and other personnel could impair our ability to successfully execute our business strategy, particularly when these individuals have acquired specialized knowledge and skills with respect to nuclear power and our operations.

Our future operations and earnings currently depend on the results of the Company’s operations outside the United States. There can be no assurance that the Company will be able to successfully continue to conduct such operations, and a failure to do so would have a material adverse effect on the Company’s research and development activities, financial position, results of operations, and cash flows. Also, the success of the Company’s operations will be subject to other numerous contingencies, some of which are beyond management’s control. These contingencies include general and regional economic conditions, competition, changes in regulations, changes in accounting and taxation standards, inability to achieve overall long-term goals, future impairment charges and global or regional catastrophic events. Because the Company is dependent on its international operations for almost all its revenue, the Company may be subject to various additional political, economic, and other uncertainties.

Financial instruments that potentially subject us to concentrations of credit risk consist principally of cash equivalents and accounts receivable. Cash equivalents consist of a checking account held with one major financial institution with a high credit standing. Accounts receivable are typically unsecured and are primarily derived from revenues earned from customers located in the Middle East. We perform ongoing evaluations to determine customer credit and we limit the amount of credit we extend, but generally we do not require collateral from our customers. We maintain reserves for estimated credit losses; however, no reserve has been set up at March 31, 2015 and 2014, as we have not incurred any credit losses from our customers to date. Approximately 36% and 85% of our consulting revenues were from our ENEC and FANR contracts for the three months ended March 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively.

Revenue Recognition [Policy Text Block]

Revenue Recognition

Consulting Business Segment

At the present time, we derive all of our revenue from our consulting and strategic advisory services business segment, by offering consulting services to governments outside the United States planning to create or expand electricity generation capabilities using nuclear power plants. Our fee structure for each client engagement is dependent on a number of variables, including the size of the client, the complexity, the level of the opportunity for us to improve the client’s electrical generation capabilities using nuclear power plants, and other factors. The accounting policy we use to recognize revenue depends on the terms and conditions of the specific contract.

Revenues from the Executive Affairs Authority (“EAA”) of Abu Dhabi, one of the member Emirates of the UAE, and the related entities, ENEC and FANR, are billed on both a time and expense basis and on a fixed contract basis with revenue recognized based on the acceptance of defined contract deliverables.

Certain customer arrangements require evaluation of the criteria outlined in the accounting standards for reporting revenue “ Gross as a Principal Versus Net as an Agent ” in determining whether it is appropriate to record the gross amount of revenue and related costs, or the net amount earned as agent fees. Generally, when we are primarily obligated in a transaction, revenue is recorded on a gross basis.

Other factors that we consider in determining whether to recognize revenue on a gross versus net basis include our assumption of credit risk, latitude in establishing prices, our determination of service specifications, and our involvement in the provision of services. We have determined, based on the credit risk that we bear for collecting consulting fees, travel costs, and other reimbursable costs from our customers, that in 2015 and 2014 we acted as a principal, and therefore we are recognizing as revenue all travel costs and other reimbursable costs billed to our customers.

Cost of consulting services includes labor, travel expenses, and other related consulting costs. All costs directly related to producing work under certain consulting agreements where revenue is recognized upon acceptance of certain contractual milestones by our customer, are first capitalized as deferred project costs. Deferred project costs are then recognized or amortized to an expense captioned “cost of consulting services provided” on the accompanying consolidated statement of operations, when the revenue is recognized upon the delivery and acceptance of the defined contractual milestones or deliverables.

Technology Business Segment

Once our nuclear fuel designs have advanced to a commercially usable stage by a fuel fabricator and/or nuclear plant owner/operator, we will seek to license our technology to them or to major government contractors working for the applicable government. We expect that our revenue from these license fees will be recognized on a straight-line basis over the expected period of the related license term.

Stock-Based Compensation [Policy Text Block]

Stock-Based Compensation

The stock-based compensation expense incurred by Lightbridge for employees and directors in connection with its stock option plan is based on the employee model of ASC 718, and the fair market value of the options is measured at the grant date. Under ASC 718 employee is defined as, “An individual over whom the grantor of a share-based compensation award exercises or has the right to exercise sufficient control to establish an employer-employee relationship based on common law as illustrated in case law and currently under U.S. Tax Regulations.” Our advisory board members and consultants do not meet the employer-employee relationship as defined by the IRS and therefore are accounted for under ASC 505-50.

ASC 505-50-30-11 (previously EITF 96-18) further provides that an issuer shall measure the fair value of the equity instruments in these transactions using the stock price and other measurement assumptions as of the earlier of the following dates, referred to as the measurement date:


The date at which a commitment for performance by the counterparty to earn the equity instruments is reached (a performance commitment); and


The date at which the counterparty’s performance is complete.

We have elected to use the Black-Scholes pricing model to determine the fair value of stock options on the measurement date of the grant. Restricted stock units are measured based on the fair market values of the underlying stock on the measurement date of the grant. Shares that are issued to officers on the exercise dates of their stock options may be issued net of the statutory withholding requirements to be paid by us on behalf of our employees. As a result, the actual number of shares issued will be fewer than the actual number of shares exercised under the stock option. We recognize stock-based compensation using the straight-line method.

For the three months ended March 31, 2015 and 2014, we recognized stock-based compensation of approximately $0.1 million. Related income tax benefits were not recognized, as we incurred a tax loss for both years.

Fair Value of Financial Instruments [Policy Text Block]

Fair Value of Financial Instruments

The carrying amounts of our financial instruments, including cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable, and accrued liabilities, approximate fair value because of their generally short maturities. We carry marketable securities at fair value.

Cash and Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash and Marketable Securities [Policy Text Block]

Cash and Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash

We invest our excess cash in money market mutual funds, and mutual bond funds. We classify all highly liquid investments with stated maturities of three months or less from date of purchase as cash equivalents and all highly liquid investments with stated maturities of greater than three months as marketable securities. We hold cash balances in excess of the federally insured limits of $250,000 with one prominent financial institution. We deem this credit risk not to be significant as our cash is held by a major prominent financial institution. Total cash and cash equivalents held in checking accounts and a money market core cash account, as reported on the accompanying consolidated balance sheets, totaled approximately $3.2 million and $4.2 million at March 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014, respectively.

Restricted cash represents cash being held by the same prominent financial institution that is being used as collateral for our corporate credit cards and future letters of credit that we may issue to some of our foreign customers. The total balance of our restricted cash at March 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014, was approximately $0.3 million.

Trade Accounts Receivable [Policy Text Block]

Trade Accounts Receivable

We record accounts receivable at the invoiced amount and we do not charge interest. We review the accounts receivable by amounts due from customers which are past due, to identify specific customers with known disputes or collectability issues. In determining the amount of the reserve, we make judgments about the creditworthiness of significant customers based on ongoing credit evaluations. We will also maintain a sales allowance to reserve for potential credits issued to customers. We will determine the amount of the reserve based on historical credits issued.

There was no provision for doubtful accounts recorded at March 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014, as we have not experienced any bad debt write-offs from any of our customers.

Approximately 78% of all accounts receivable at March 31, 2015 and substantially all of our December 31, 2014, are from the FANR and ENEC contracts (see Note 4-Accounts Receivable – Project Revenue and Reimbursable Project Costs).

Income Taxes [Policy Text Block]

Income Taxes

Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases as well as operating loss and tax credit carry forwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance to the extent that the recoverability of the asset is unlikely to be recognized. We did not provide any current or deferred income tax provision or benefit for any periods presented to date because we have continued to experience a net operating loss since inception and therefore provide a 100% valuation allowance against all of our deferred tax assets.

The Company adopted the ASC standards relating to “ Accounting for Uncertainty in Income Taxes .” This pronouncement provides guidance for recognizing and measuring uncertain tax positions, as defined in the FASB accounting pronouncement “ Accounting for Income Taxes .” This pronouncement prescribes a threshold condition that a tax position must meet for any of the benefits of the uncertain tax position to be recognized in the financial statements. This pronouncement also provides accounting guidance on derecognizing, classification and disclosure of these uncertain tax positions. The Company recognizes interest accrued related to unrecognized tax benefits in interest expense and penalties in operating expenses. The Company has not recognized any interest and penalties in 2015 or 2014.

Foreign Currency [Policy Text Block]

Foreign Currency

The functional currency of our international branches is the local currency. We translate the financial statements of these branches to U.S. dollars using period-end rates of exchange for assets and liabilities, and average rates of exchange for revenues, costs, and expenses. The translation gains/losses for our branch office in Russia were not significant for the three months ended March 31, 2015 and 2014.

Patents and Legal Costs [Policy Text Block]

Patents and Legal Costs

Patents are stated on the accompanying consolidated balance sheets at cost less accumulated amortization. The costs of the patents, once placed in service, will be amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives or the remaining legal lives of the patents, whichever is shorter. The amortization periods for our patents can range between 17 and 20 years if placed into service at the beginning of their legal lives. Our patents have not been placed in service for the three months ended March 31, 2015 and 2014. Legal costs are expensed as incurred except for legal costs to file for patent protection, which are capitalized and reported as patents on the accompanying consolidated balance sheets.

Impairment of long-lived assets [Policy Text Block]

Impairment of long-lived assets

Long-lived assets of the Company are reviewed for impairment whenever events or circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of assets may not be recoverable. The Company recognizes an impairment loss when the sum of expected undiscounted future cash flows is less than the carrying amount of the asset. The amount of impairment is measured as the difference between the asset’s estimated fair value and its book value. The Company did not consider it necessary to record any impairment charges for the three months ended March 31, 2015 and 2014.

Research, Development and Related Expenses [Policy Text Block]

Research, Development and Related Expenses

These costs from our Technology business segment are charged to operations in the period incurred and are shown on a separate line on the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Operations. Research and development and related expenses totaled approximately $0.2 million and $0.4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively.

Segment Reporting [Policy Text Block]

Segment Reporting

We use the “management approach” in determining reportable operating segments. The management approach considers the internal organization and reporting used by our chief decision makers for making operating decisions and assessing performance, as the source for determining our reportable segments. We have determined that we have two operating segments as defined by the FASB accounting pronouncement, “ Disclosures about Segments of an Enterprise and Related Information .” As discussed above, our two reporting business segments are our technology business and our consulting services business (See Note 10 - Business Segment Results).

Commitments and Contingencies [Policy Text Block]

Commitments and Contingencies

The Company follows subtopic 450-20 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification to account for and report contingencies. Certain conditions may exist as of the date the consolidated financial statements are issued, which may result in a loss to the Company but which will only be resolved when one or more future events occur or fail to occur. The Company assesses such contingent liabilities, and such assessment inherently involves an exercise of judgment.

If the assessment of a contingency indicates that it is probable that a material loss has been incurred and the amount of the liability can be estimated, then the estimated liability would be accrued in the Company’s consolidated financial statements. If the assessment indicates that a potentially material loss contingency is not probable but is reasonably possible, or is probable but cannot be estimated, then the nature of the contingent liability, and an estimate of the range of possible losses, if determinable and material, would be disclosed.

Loss contingencies considered remote are generally not disclosed unless they involve guarantees, in which case the guarantees would be disclosed. The Company’s legal costs associated with contingent liabilities are recorded to expense as incurred.

Warrant Liability [Policy Text Block]

Warrant Liability

The Company accounts for stock warrants as either equity instruments or derivative liabilities depending on the specific terms of the warrant agreement. Stock warrants are accounted for as a derivative in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification 815, Derivatives and Hedging (“ASC 815”) if the stock warrants contain terms that could potentially require “net cash settlement” and therefore, do not meet the scope exception for treatment as a derivative. Warrant instruments that could potentially require “net cash settlement” in the absence of express language precluding such settlement are initially classified as derivative liabilities at their estimated fair values, regardless of the likelihood that such instruments will ever be settled in cash. The Company will continue to classify the fair value of the warrants that contain “net cash settlement” as a liability until the warrants are exercised, expire or are amended in a way that would no longer require these warrants to be classified as a liability. For additional discussion on warrants, see Note 8.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements [Policy Text Block]

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

In May 2014, the FASB issued guidance on revenue from contracts with customers that will supersede most current revenue recognition guidance, including industry-specific guidance. The underlying principle is that an entity will recognize revenue to depict the transfer of goods or services to customers at an amount that the entity expects to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services. The guidance provides a five-step analysis of transactions to determine when and how revenue is recognized. Other major provisions include capitalization of certain contract costs, consideration of time value of money in the transaction price, and allowing estimates of variable consideration to be recognized before contingencies are resolved in certain circumstances. The guidance also requires enhanced disclosures regarding the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from an entity’s contracts with customers. The guidance is effective for the interim and annual periods beginning on or after December 15, 2017, (early adoption is not permitted). The guidance permits the use of either a retrospective or cumulative effect transition method.

The Company does not expect the adoption of any recent accounting pronouncements to have a material impact on its financial statements.