Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Basis of Presentation Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Nature of Operations

Basis of Presentation Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Nature of Operations
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2020
Basis of Presentation Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Nature of Operations  
Note 1. Basis of Presentation, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Nature of Operations

The Company was formed on October 6, 2006, when Thorium Power, Ltd., which was incorporated in the state of Nevada on February 2, 1999, merged with Thorium Power, Inc. (“TPI”), which was incorporated in the state of Delaware on January 8, 1992 (subsequently and collectively referred to as “we” or the “Company”). On September 29, 2009, the Company changed its name from Thorium Power, Ltd. to Lightbridge Corporation and began its focus on developing and commercializing metallic nuclear fuels. The Company is a nuclear fuel technology company developing and commercializing next generation nuclear fuel technology.


Basis of presentation


Going Concern, Liquidity and Management’s Plan


While the Company’s cash at December 31, 2020 exceeds its currently budgeted expenditures through the first quarter of 2022, there are inherent uncertainties in forecasting future expenditures, especially forecasting for uncertainties such as future R&D costs and how COVID-19 may affect future costs and operations. Also, the cash requirements of the Company’s future planned operations to commercialize its nuclear fuel, including any additional expenditures that may result from unexpected developments, requires it to raise significant additional capital including receiving government support. The Company will need to seek its shareholders’ approval in 2021 to increase the number of its authorized common shares for future equity financings, in order for the Company to continue to fund its future operations. Taking into account these uncertainties as well as the updated projected fuel development timeline of 15-20 years to commercialization, projected operational costs to keep the fuel development project on schedule and the various risks of developing and commercializing its nuclear fuel, these factors raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern for the 12 months following the date of this filing. To the extent any uncertainties reduce the Company’s liquidity for the next 12 months, the Company will consider, if available, additional debt or equity raises and delaying certain expenditures, including delaying research and development expenses, until sufficient capital becomes available.


At December 31, 2020, the Company had approximately $21.5 million in cash and had a working capital surplus of approximately $17.1 million. The Company’s net cash used in operating activities for the year ended December 31, 2020 was approximately $8.6 million, and current projections indicate that the Company will have continued negative cash flows from operations until the commercialization of its nuclear fuel. Net losses incurred for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 amounted to approximately $(14.4) million, $(10.7) million, respectively. As of December 31, 2020, the Company has an accumulated deficit of approximately $129.2 million, representative of recurring losses since inception. The Company has incurred recurring losses since inception and it will continue to incur losses because it is in the early development stage of commercializing its nuclear fuel.


The Company’s plans to fund future operations including: (1) raising additional capital through future equity issuances or convertible debt financings; (2) additional funding through new relationships to help fund future research and development costs; and (3) other sources of capital. The Company may issue securities, including common stock, preferred stock, and stock purchase contracts through private placement transactions or registered public offerings, pursuant to future registration statements. The current Form S-3 was filed with the SEC on March 15, 2018 and declared effective on March 23, 2018, and will expire on March 23, 2021. There can be no assurance as to the future availability of filing a Form S-3 or raising future equity capital or terms upon which financing and capital might become available. If the Company is unable to raise additional capital on terms acceptable to the Company and on a timely basis, the Company will be required to wind-down its operations. To the extent additional capital is raised through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, such securities may be sold at a discount from the market price of the Company's common stock. The issuance of these securities could also result in significant dilution to the Company's stockholders, depending on the terms of the transaction. The Company’s future liquidity needs to develop its nuclear fuel are long-term, and the ability to address those needs, and the ability to raise capital will largely be determined by the success of the development of its nuclear fuel, key nuclear development and government regulatory events, and its business decisions in the future.


Equity Method Investment – Enfission, LLC


In January 2018, Lightbridge and Framatome Inc., a subsidiary of Framatome SAS (formerly part of AREVA SAS) (collectively “Framatome”), finalized and launched Enfission, LLC (“Enfission”), a 50-50 joint venture company, to develop, license, and sell nuclear fuel assemblies based on Lightbridge-designed metallic fuel technology and other advanced nuclear fuel intellectual property. Lightbridge and Framatome began joint fuel development and regulatory licensing work under previously signed agreements initiated in March 2016. The joint venture, Enfission, is a Delaware-based limited liability company that was formed on January 24, 2018.


Management determined that its investment in Enfission be accounted for under the equity method of accounting. Under the equity method of accounting, an investee company’s accounts are not reflected within the Company’s consolidated balance sheets and consolidated statements of operations; however, the Company’s share of the losses of the investee company is reported in the “Equity in loss from joint venture” line item in the consolidated statements of operations, and the Company’s carrying value in an equity method investee company is reported in the “Investment in joint venture” or “Investee losses in excess of investment” line item in the consolidated balance sheets.


The Company allocates income or loss utilizing the hypothetical liquidation book value (“HLBV”) method, based on the change in each JV member’s claim on the net assets of the JV under the JV’s operating agreement at period end after adjusting for any distributions or contributions made during such period. The Company uses this method because of the difference between the distribution rights and priorities set forth in the Enfission operating agreement and what is reflected by the underlying percentage ownership interests of the joint venture.


The Company evaluates on a quarterly basis whether our investment accounted for under the equity method of accounting has an other than temporary impairment (“OTTI”). An OTTI occurs when the estimated fair value of an investment is below the carrying value and the difference is determined not likely to be recoverable. This evaluation requires significant judgment regarding, but not limited to, the severity and duration of the impairment; the ability and intent to hold the security until recovery; financial condition, liquidity, and near-term prospects of the issuer; specific events; and other factors.


Enfission was inactive for the year ended December 31, 2020 and at December 31, 2019. No amounts related to the equity method investment in Enfission have been recorded on the consolidated balance sheets or the consolidated statements of operations for the year ended December 31, 2020 and a $3.3 million loss on this equity method investment was recorded on the consolidated statements of operations for the year ended December 31, 2019.


Basis of Consolidation


These consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Lightbridge, a Nevada corporation, and the Company’s wholly-owned subsidiaries, TPI, a Delaware corporation, and Lightbridge International Holding LLC, a Delaware limited liability company. These wholly-owned subsidiaries are inactive. All significant intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.


The Company owns a 50% interest in Enfission; accounted for using the equity method of accounting (see Note 4. Investment in Joint Venture (Investee Losses in Excess of Investment)). Enfission is deemed to be a variable interest entity (“VIE”) under the VIE model of consolidation because it does not have sufficient funds to finance its operations. The Company has determined that it is not the primary beneficiary of the VIE since it does not have the power to direct the activities that most significantly impact the VIE’s performance. Enfission’s operations was inactive for the year ended December 31, 2020 and at December 31, 2019. Enfission was dissolved on March 23, 2021. The Company will withdraw its petition for judicial dissolution of Enfission on file with the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware.


Segment Reporting


ASC Topic 280, “Segment Reporting,” requires use of the “management approach” model for segment reporting. The management approach model is based on the way a company’s management organizes segments within the company for making operating decisions and assessing performance. We report our results in a single reportable segment, which reflects how our chief operating decision maker allocates resources considering our core data which is managed centrally on a company-wide basis, and evaluates our financial results. Because we have a single reportable segment, all required financial segment information can be found directly in the Consolidated Financial Statements. We evaluate the performance of our reporting segment based on operating expenses and will evaluate additional segment disclosure requirements as it expands its operation.


Use of Estimates and Assumptions


The preparation of consolidated financial statements, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.


Significant Estimates


These accompanying consolidated financial statements include some amounts that are based on management’s best estimates and assumptions. The most significant estimates relate to its patent impairment evaluation and undiscounted and discounted cash flow projections used for the impairment testing of its patents, valuation of stock grants and stock options, the valuation allowance on deferred tax assets, and contingent liabilities. It is reasonably possible that these above-mentioned estimates and others may be adjusted as more current information becomes available, and any adjustment could be significant in future reporting periods. It is also reasonably possible that the actual grant date value of the stock options vested might have been materially different than the estimated value.


Fair Value of Financial Instruments


The Company’s consolidated financial instruments consist principally of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, and accounts payable. The fair value of a financial instrument is the amount that would be received in an asset sale or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between unaffiliated market participants. Assets and liabilities measured at fair value are categorized based on whether the inputs are observable in the market and the degree that the inputs are observable. The categorization of financial instruments within the valuation hierarchy is based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement.


Certain Risks, Uncertainties and Concentrations


The Company will need additional funding by way of a combination of strategic alliances, government grants, further offerings of equity securities, or an offering of debt securities in order to support its future research and development activities required to further enhance and complete the development of its fuel products to a proof of concept and a commercial stage.


The Company participates in a government-regulated industry. The operating results are affected by a wide variety of factors including decreases in the use or public favor of nuclear power, the ability of the Company’s technology to safeguard the production of nuclear power, the ability to receive the required approval from the nuclear regulatory commission for utilities to use its fuel and the ability to safeguard the Company’s patents and intellectual property from competitors. Due to these factors, the Company may experience substantial period-to-period fluctuations in its future operating results. Potentially, a loss of key officer, key management, and other personnel could impair its ability to successfully execute its business strategy, particularly when these individuals have acquired specialized knowledge and skills with respect to nuclear power and how it relates to the Company’s nuclear fuel.


There can be no assurance that the Company will be able to successfully continue to conduct its operations if there is a lack of financial resources in the future to continue its fuel development, and a failure to do so would have a material adverse effect on the Company’s future research and development activities, financial position, results of operations, and cash flows. Also, the success of the Company’s operations will be subject to other numerous contingencies, some of which are beyond management’s control. These contingencies include general and regional economic conditions, contingent liabilities, potential competition with other nuclear fuel developers, including those entities developing accident tolerant fuels, changes in government regulations, support for nuclear power, changes in accounting and taxation standards, inability to achieve overall long-term goals, future impairment charges to its assets, and global or regional catastrophic events. The Company may also be subject to various additional political, economic, and other uncertainties.


On January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization (“WHO”) announced a global health emergency because of a new strain of coronavirus originating in Wuhan, China (the “COVID-19 outbreak”) and the risk to the international community as the virus spreads globally beyond its point of origin. In March 2020, the WHO classified the COVID-19 outbreak a pandemic, based on increase in exposure globally. The current spread of COVID-19 that is impacting global economic activity and market conditions could lead to adverse changes in the Company’s ability to conduct research and development activities with the United States national labs and others. The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted business operations and results of operations for 2020, resulting in the reduction of research and development expenses and increase in general and administrative expenses due to severance payments to former employees. While the Company continues to monitor the impact of COVID-19 on its business, the Company is unable to accurately predict the ultimate impact on the results of operations, financial condition and liquidity that COVID-19 will have due to various uncertainties, including the geographic spread of the virus, the severity of the disease, the duration of the outbreak, and actions that may be taken by governmental authorities and other third-parties.


On March 27, 2020, President Trump signed into law the “Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act.” The CARES Act, among other things, includes provisions relating to refundable payroll tax credits, deferment of employer social security payment, net operating loss carryback period, alternative minimum tax credit refund, modification to the net interest deduction limitation, increased limitations on qualified charitable contributions, and technical corrections to tax depreciation method for qualified improvement property. It also appropriated funds for the SBA Paycheck Protection Program loans that are forgivable in certain situations to promote continued employment, as well as Economic Injury Disaster Loans to provide liquidity to small businesses harmed by COVID-19. Management decided not to apply for these funds. The CARES Act did not have an impact on our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.


Cash and Cash Equivalents


The Company may at times invest its excess cash in interest bearing accounts and US Treasury Bills. It classifies all highly liquid investments with original stated maturities of three months or less from date of purchase as cash equivalents and all highly liquid investments with stated maturities of greater than three months as marketable securities. The Company holds cash balances in excess of the federally insured limits of $250,000. It deems this credit risk not to be significant as cash is held by two prominent financial institutions in 2020 and 2019. The Company buys and holds short-term US Treasury Bills from Treasury Direct to maturity. US Treasury Bills totaled approximately $13.0 million and $9.0 million at December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. The remaining $8.5 million and $9.0 million at December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively, are on deposit with one notable financial institution. Total cash and cash equivalents held, as reported on the accompanying consolidated balance sheets, totaled approximately $21.5 million and $18.0 million at December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.


Grant Income


The Company has concluded that its government grant is not within the scope of ASC Topic 606 as it does not meet the definition of a contract with a customer. Additionally, the Company has concluded that the grant meets the definition of a contribution and are non-reciprocal transactions, and has also determined that Subtopic 958-605, Not-for-Profit-Entities-Revenue Recognition does not apply, as the Company is a business entity and the grant is with governmental agencies.


In the absence of applicable guidance under US GAAP, the Company management has developed a policy to recognize grant income at the time the related costs are incurred and the right to payment is realized.


The Company believes this policy is consistent with the overarching premise in ASC Topic 606, to ensure that revenue recognition reflects the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration that we expect to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services, even though there is no exchange as defined in ASC Topic 606. Additionally, the Company has determined that the recognition of grant income as costs are incurred and amounts become realizable is analogous to the concept of transfer of control of a service over time under ASC Topic 606.


Further, the Company believes that showing grant income on a gross method, with the grant income shown as other operating income and the related costs as a charge to research and development expense, rather than depicting the grant income as a reduction of research and development expense, is a more meaningful presentation.


The Company recognized grant income of approximately $0.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. There was no grant income recognized in 2019.


Patents and Trademarks Costs




Patents are stated on the accompanying consolidated balance sheets at cost. Costs, such as filing fees with patent granting agencies and legal fees directly relating to those filings, incurred to file patent applications are capitalized when the Company believes that there is a high likelihood that the patent will be issued and there will be future economic benefit associated with the patent. These costs are amortized from the date of the patent application on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful life of 20 years, which is the legal life of the patent. All costs associated with abandoned patent applications are expensed. The Company expenses patent annuity fees as these fees are maintenance fees required by the patent office at certain points in time after a patent is granted in order to keep the patent legal rights in force. During the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, these patent annuity fees were insignificant.


As of December 31, 2020, and 2019, the carrying value of the patents was $0 and approximately $1.0 million, respectively. Amortization expense for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, was approximately $0.1 million, respectively. The Company anticipates future patent costs to be expensed in future periods, which is due to the uncertainties in the current fuel development timelines and the patents being commercialized.




Costs for filing and legal fees for trademark applications are capitalized. Trademarks are considered intangible assets with an indefinite useful life and therefore should not be amortized. The Company performed an impairment test in the fourth quarter of 2020 and 2019 and no impairment of the trademarks was identified. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the carrying value of trademarks was approximately $0.1 million.


Impairment of long-lived assets - Patents


The Company reviews the carrying value of its capitalized patent costs for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying value may not be recoverable. Undiscounted cash flows are compared to the carrying value of the asset to determine if the assets are recoverable. If the asset fails the recoverability test, the Company determines the fair value of the asset using discounted cash flows to measure any impairment loss. The determination of anticipated undiscounted cash flows is inherently subjective, requiring significant management assumptions and estimates related to future revenues, operating expense, research and development expenses and timing of commercialization. During the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company has recorded an impairment loss on its patents of approximately $1.1 million and $0, respectively. See Note 5, for additional information about impairment charges recorded for the year ended December 31, 2020.


Research, Development and Related Expenses


These costs are charged to operations in the years incurred and are shown on a separate line on the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.




In 2019, the Company adopted ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), which requires recognition of most lease arrangements on the balance sheet. The Company recognizes operating lease right of use assets and liabilities at commencement date based on the present value of the future minimum lease payments over the lease term. Leases with an initial term of 12 months or less are not recorded on the consolidated balance sheet in accordance with the short-term lease recognition exemption. The Company applies the practical expedient to non-separate and non-lease components for all leases that qualify. Lease expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. The Company has only one lease for office rent and the lease is for a term of 12 months without renewal options. See Note 7 for additional information.


Beneficial Conversion Feature of Convertible Preferred Stock


The Company accounts for the beneficial conversion feature on its convertible preferred stock in accordance with ASC 470-20, Debt with Conversion and Other Options. The Beneficial Conversion Feature (“BCF”) of convertible preferred stock is normally characterized as the convertible portion or feature that provides a rate of conversion that is below market value or in-the-money when issued. The Company records a BCF related to the issuance of convertible preferred stock when issued. Beneficial conversion features that are contingent upon the occurrence of a future event are recorded when the contingency is resolved.


To determine the effective conversion price, the Company first allocates the proceeds received to the convertible preferred stock and then uses those allocated proceeds to determine the effective conversion price. If the convertible instrument is issued in a basket transaction (i.e. issued along with other freestanding financial instruments), the proceeds should first be allocated to the various instruments in the basket. The intrinsic value of the conversion option should be measured using the effective conversion price for the convertible preferred stock on the proceeds allocated to that instrument. The effective conversion price represents proceeds allocable to the convertible preferred stock divided by the number of shares into which it is convertible. The effective conversion price is then compared to the per share fair value of the underlying common shares on the commitment date. The accounting for a BCF requires that the BCF be recognized by allocating the intrinsic value of the conversion option to additional paid-in capital, resulting in a discount on the convertible preferred stock. This discount should be accreted from the date on which the BCF is first recognized through the earliest conversion date for instruments that do not have a stated redemption date. The intrinsic value of the BCF is recognized as a deemed dividend on convertible preferred stock over a period specified in the guidance. In the case of both the Series A and Series B preferred shares, the holders of the shares had the right to convert beginning at the date of issuance with the result that the accretion of the related BCF was recognized immediately at issuance.


When the Company’s preferred stock has dividends that are paid-in-kind (“PIK”) (i.e. the holder is paid in additional shares or liquidation/dividend rights), and either (1) neither the Company nor the holder has the option for the dividend to be paid in cash, or (2) the PIK amounts do not accrue to the holder if the instrument is converted prior to the PIK amount otherwise being accrued or due, additional BCF is recognized as dividends accrue to the extent that the per share fair value of the underlying common shares at the commitment date exceeds the conversion price.


Common Stock Warrants


The Company accounts for common stock warrants as either equity instruments or derivative liabilities depending on the specific terms of the warrant agreement. Common stock warrants are accounted for as a derivative in accordance with ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging if the stock warrants contain terms that could potentially require “net cash settlement” and therefore, do not meet the scope exception for treatment as a derivative. Warrant instruments that could potentially require “net cash settlement” in the absence of explicit language precluding such settlement are initially classified as derivative liabilities at their estimated fair values, regardless of the likelihood that such instruments will ever be settled in cash.


Commitments and Contingencies


The Company follows Subtopic 450-20 of the FASB ASC to report accounting for contingencies. Certain conditions may exist as of the date the consolidated financial statements are issued, which may result in a loss to the Company, but which will only be resolved when one or more future events occur or fail to occur. The Company assesses such contingent liabilities, and such assessment inherently involves an exercise of judgment.


If the assessment of a contingency indicates that it is probable that a material loss has been incurred and the amount of the liability can be estimated, then the estimated liability would be accrued in the Company’s consolidated financial statements. If the assessment indicates that a potentially material loss contingency is not probable but is reasonably possible, or is probable but cannot be estimated, then the nature of the contingent liability, and an estimate of the range of possible losses, if determinable and material, would be disclosed.


Loss contingencies considered remote are generally not disclosed unless they involve guarantees, in which case the guarantees would be disclosed. The Company’s legal costs associated with contingent liabilities are recorded to expense as incurred.


Stock-Based Compensation


The stock-based compensation expense incurred by Lightbridge for employees and directors in connection with its equity incentive plan is based on the employee model of ASC 718, and the fair value of the options is measured at the grant date. Under ASC 718 employee is defined as, “An individual over whom the grantor of a share-based compensation award exercises or has the right to exercise sufficient control to establish an employer-employee relationship based on common law as illustrated in case law and currently under U.S. Tax Regulations.” Our consultants do not meet the employer employee relationship as defined by the IRS and therefore were accounted for under ASC 505-50. On July 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASU 2018-07, Compensation – Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting. Beginning with the adoption of ASU 2018-07 options granted to our consultants are accounted for in the same manner as options issued to employees.


Awards with service-based vesting conditions only – Expense recognized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period of the award.


Awards with performance-based vesting conditions – Expense is not recognized until it is determined that it is probable the performance-based conditions will be met. When achievement of a performance-based condition is probable, a catch-up of expense will be recorded as if the award had been vesting on a straight-line basis from the award date. The award will continue to be expensed on a straight-line over the requisite service period basis until a higher performance-based condition is met, if applicable.


Awards with market-based vesting conditions – Expense recognized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period, which is the lesser of the derived service period or the explicit service period if one is present. However, if the market condition is satisfied prior to the end of the requisite service period, the Company will accelerate all remaining expense to be recognized.


Awards with both performance-based and market-based vesting conditions – if an award vesting or exercisability is conditional upon the achievement of either a market condition or performance or service conditions, the requisite service period is generally the shortest of the explicit, implicit, and derived service period.


The Company has elected to use the Black-Scholes pricing model to determine the fair value of stock options on the measurement date of the grant for service-based vesting conditions and the Monte-Carlo valuation method for performance-based or market-based vesting conditions. Shares that are issued to officers on the exercise dates of their stock options may be issued net of the minimum statutory withholding requirements to be paid by us on behalf of our employees. As a result, the actual number of shares issued will be fewer than the actual number of shares exercised under the stock option.


Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements


ASU 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework — Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement — This ASU modifies the disclosure requirements on fair value measurements in Topic 820, including the removal, modification to, and addition of certain disclosure requirements. This ASU is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019 with early adoption permitted. The majority of the disclosure changes are to be applied on a prospective basis. The Company adopted ASU 2018-13 commencing in the first quarter of fiscal 2020 and this ASU did not have a material impact on the Company’s fair value disclosures in the Company’s consolidated financial statements.


Recent Accounting Pronouncements – To Be Adopted


In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-06, Debt-Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging-Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity. ASU 2020-06 will simplify the accounting for convertible instruments by reducing the number of accounting models for convertible debt instruments and convertible preferred stock. Limiting the accounting models will result in fewer embedded conversion features being separately recognized from the host contract as compared with current GAAP. Convertible instruments that continue to be subject to separation models are (1) those with embedded conversion features that are not clearly and closely related to the host contract, that meet the definition of a derivative, and that do not qualify for a scope exception from derivative accounting and (2) convertible debt instruments issued with substantial premiums for which the premiums are recorded as paid-in capital. ASU 2020-06 also amends the guidance for the derivatives scope exception for contracts in an entity’s own equity to reduce form-over-substance-based accounting conclusions. ASU 2020-06 will be effective July 1, 2024, for the Company. Early adoption is permitted, but no earlier than July 1, 2021, including interim periods within that year. Management is currently evaluating the effect of the adoption of ASU 2020-06 on the consolidated financial statements and footnote disclosures.


ASU 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes, simplifies the accounting for income taxes by removing certain exceptions to the general principles in Topic 740. The ASU also clarifies and amends existing guidance to improve consistent application. For public business entities, the amendments in this ASU are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, and interim periods within those fiscal years. For all other entities, the amendments are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022. Early adoption is permitted. The amendments in the ASU have various transition requirements Management is currently evaluating the effect of the adoption of ASU 2019-12 on its consolidated financial statements and footnote disclosures.